Research

Our team investigates the causes and consequences of biodiversity change in marine and freshwater systems. Our overarching goal is to develop science-based tools for conserving natural resources under global change. To do this, we conduct collaborative research using a range of methods in the lab and field— including behavioural observation, manipulative field experiments, theoretical and statistical models, and time series analyses along anthropogenic gradients— to understand how drivers like invasion, climate change, and over-exploitation are altering aquatic food webs. Our products are both fundamental and applied. For example, we seek to advance foraging and population dynamics theory in ways that help practitioners and policy makers manage for future environmental conditions. Our work takes place in close collaboration with university, government, NGO, and citizen scientists throughout the Caribbean, US, and Canada on several themes:


Marine food webs under global change

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Unprecedented rates of global climate change (climate, biological invasion, exploitation) are now pushing species’ ranges and densities far outside historical variation. How will ecosystems and the resources we derive from them respond? A key challenge for tackling this question is a lack of general principles from which to predict the strength of novel interactions as species encounter one another for the first time within re-assembled food webs. Our research is tackling this issue by investigating the role behavioural and morphological traits play, independent from species identity, in determining the strength of food web interactions. This work will facilitate predictions of ecosystem structure and function under future climate scenarios that account for the important influence of biotic interactions. Currently, we’re focused on the effects of climate change on the distribution of predatory Albacore tuna in the Eastern Pacific and the consequences for cross-boundary fisheries management (photo above; NOAA).

Sample papers:  Green et al. 2019 Ecosphere

Read more on this theme: Dr. Natasha Hardy, Cole Brookson

Collaborative Networks: Future Seas Project


Dynamics and recovery in restored coastal ecosystems

DCIM294GOPROPrecipitous declines in coral reef and mangrove habitat worldwide threatens the food security, livelihoods and infrastructure of tropical coastal communities. Is it possible to restore the functionality of damaged habitats? What ecological and socioeconomic factors mediate the success of restoration efforts? Our research is tackling these questions through collaborative projects in coastal areas of the Caribbean where habitat restoration is occurring amidst a range of other conservation interventions. By DCIM101GOPROapplying a range of ecological concepts including resilience and metacommunity theory to field and lab studies of restoration, we are investigating how system properties (e.g., species equivalence, migration rates, habitat heterogeneity) affect ecological processes (e.g., magnitude and stability of diversity and biomass) across space and time, and ultimately understand the context in which restoration interventions are likely to lead to ecological recovery and socioeconomic benefits.

Read more on this theme: Aneri Garg, Noelle Helder, Courtney Stuart 

Collaborative networks: Coral Restoration Consortium


Patterns, process, and consequences of biological invasion

Lionfish observationsPredicting the effects of invasion on recipient ecosystems is a top challenge for conservation. In aquatic ecosystems, restricted access to many habitats and high population connectivity mean that invaders  spread at a pace and scale that precludes complete eradication.  To address this ongoing problem, we are building tools that help managers forecast the consequences of invasion intensification and spread, and decide how to best use resources to prevent and reverse the impacts of invasion in aquatic ecosystems. Pertinent questions that our work asks are:

  •  To what extent are strong, non-linear invasion impacts predictable?
  • To what extent must invasive populations be suppressed to protect native species from substantial declines?
  • How can managers effectively allocate resources for intervention to maximize ecological protection and minimize socio-economic costs?
  • How do environmental and biotic characteristics influence invasion intensity?

greencrabeatingclamOur research into these questions currently focuses on three broadly distributed invasions of management concern:  Indo-Pacific lionfish in the Western Atlantic (above), European green crab in the eastern Pacific (right; photo: Ted Grosholz), and Prussian carp in central Canada.

 

Sample papers:  Green et al. 2014, Ecological Applications;Green et al. 2017 Conservation Letters

Read more on this theme: Dr. Alex Davis, Natasha Pentyliuk

Collaborative networks: Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Regional Panels


Uniting ecological and social science for conservation

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How can we harness sufficient human and economic capital to tackle the biggest environmental challenges facing us today, and at relevant temporal and spatial scales?  I am interested in understanding the role non-traditional methods and partnerships—such as market development, volunteer engagement, and media communication—play in addressing conservation problems. In particular, our research focuses on the ways a variety of societal sectors can influence the application of ecological research to conservation, in terms of identifying research needs, assisting with research execution, disseminating results, and facilitating uptake into practice.

Sample papers: Green et al. 2015 Conservation LettersPhillis et al. 2012 Conservation Letters

 

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